Things in Programming

Types of Things in Programming

  • Variables – Stored data
  • Functions – code that does stuff
  • Loops – A function that runs when its conditions are met


  • There are 6 important types of variables:
  • Integers – Any whole number
    • Floats – Floating point number, any decimal
  • Null – No value (NOT THE SAME AS 0)
    • Chars – Single characters, can be letters or numbers
  • Boolean – True/False
  • String – Anything that doesn’t fit into the above categories. ALWAYS has to be enclosed in quote marks
  • Variables tend to be created with the following structure:
    • =
  • For example: int hello = 5
  • Create an integer named “hello” that has the value of 5
  • If the command value(hello) is called, the interpreter will return 5


  • Commands that do things, for example:
    • echo/log/print to print text
  • add(1,2) will compute 1+2 and return 3
  • Functions are specific to programming languages
  • Functions can also be created using def(), func() or function()
    • For Example:
def hello_world():
    print(“Hello world!”)
- Would generate the output:
Hello world!
## Loops - Loops are functions that execute if their conditions are met - Types of loops include: - If loops: IF Condition is met, do XYZ - While loops: WHILE Condition is met, do XYZ - For loops: iterates over a sequence - Example: for every letter in string(“banana”), add 1 to int(number_of_letters) - Will result in int(number_of_letters) to equal 6 - Loops can be nested inside one another.

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Pranav Sharma
Pranav Sharma
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Year 12 Student, site owner and developer.