Making a Post

Making the post

  • In the Content Manager, click “Quick add” in the top right, then select “Post”
  • Fill in the title field as Subject: Topic
    • For example: SOR1: John XXIII or Physics: Kinematics
  • Optionally, fill in the subtitle

Content formatting

Content can be written using Markdown, LaTeX math, and Shortcodes. This article gives an overview of the most common formatting options, including features that are exclusive to this site.

Shortcodes are plugins which are made specifically for this site, or inherited from Hugo. Additionally, HTML may be written in Markdown documents for advanced formatting.


## Heading 2
### Heading 3
#### Heading 4
##### Heading 5
###### Heading 6


Italics with _underscores_.

Bold with **asterisks**.

Combined emphasis with **asterisks and _underscores_**.

Strikethrough with ~~two tildes~~.



1. First item
2. Another item


* First item
* Another item


Todo lists can be written by using the standard Markdown syntax:

- [x] Write math example
- [x] Ignore the exam that's due tomorrow
- [ ] Do something else

renders as

  • Write math example
  • Ignore the exam that’s due tomorrow
  • Do something else


Images may be added to a page by either placing them in your page’s folder, and then referencing them using one of the following notations:

A figure within a page’s folder (e.g. content/post/hello/) :

{{< figure src="image.jpg" title="A caption" lightbox="true" >}}

A numbered figure with caption:

{{< figure src="image.jpg" title="A caption" numbered="true" lightbox="true" >}}

A general image:

![alternative text for search engines](/img/image.jpg)

Figures may be cross-referenced.

To add an image gallery to a page bundle:

  1. Create a gallery album folder within your page bundle (i.e. within your page’s own folder)
  2. Add images to your new album folder
  3. Paste {{< gallery album="<ALBUM FOLDER>" >}} where you would like the gallery to appear in the page content, changing the album parameter to match the name of your album folder

Optionally, to add captions for your images, add the following instances to the end of your page’s front matter:

- album: <ALBUM FOLDER>
  image: <IMAGE NAME>.jpg
  caption: Write your image caption here

Alternatively, create an image gallery with images from the internet or your static/img/ media library:

  1. Add gallery images to within your static/img/ media library folder

  2. Reference your images at the end of the front matter of a content file in the form:

     - album: gallery
       image: boards.jpg
       caption: A caption
     - album: gallery
       caption: Another caption
  3. Display the gallery somewhere within your page content by using {{< gallery >}}

For docs pages (i.e. pages using the courses and documentation layout), gallery images must be placed in the static/ media library using the second approach (due to limitations of Hugo).


To cite a page or publication, you can use the cite shortcode, referencing a folder and pagename that you created:

where view corresponds to one of the available views:

  1. Stream
  2. Compact
  3. Card
  4. APA style citation

NOTE: If you don’t specify a view, it will default to compact.


You can add a podcast or music to a page by placing the MP3 file in the page’s folder and then referencing the audio file using the audio shortcode:


The following kinds of video may be added to a page.

Local video file

Videos may be added to a page by either placing them in your static/img/ media library or in your page’s folder, and then referencing them using one of the following notations.

A video from your static/img/ media library:

{{< video library="1" src="my_video.mp4" controls="yes" >}}

A video within a page’s folder (e.g. content/post/hello/):

{{< video src="my_video.mp4" controls="yes" >}}


{{< youtube dQw4w9WgXcQ >}}


{{< vimeo 138344302 >}}
[I'm a link](
[A post]({{< ref "/post/my-page-name/" >}})
[A publication]({{< ref "/publication/my-page-name/" >}})
[A project]({{< ref "/project/my-page-name/" >}})
[A relative link from one post to another post]({{< relref "../my-page-name/" >}})
[Scroll down to a page section with heading *Hi*](#hi)

To enable linking to a file, such as a PDF, first place the file in your static/files/ folder and then link to it using the following form:

{{% staticref "files/cv.pdf" "newtab" %}}Download my CV{{% /staticref %}}

The optional "newtab" argument for staticref will cause the link to be opened in a new tab.


To cross-reference a figure:

  1. Retrieve the figure ID. The figure ID consists of a URL friendly equivalent of the image caption prefixed with figure-. To grab the exact ID, preview the page in Hugo, right click a figure and click Inspect in your browser to grab the value of the figure’s id field.
  2. Create a link to the figure in the form [a link to a figure](#figure-FIGURES-CAPTION).

Tags and Categories

Use {{< list_tags >}} to provide a list of linked tags or {{< list_categories >}} to provide a list of linked categories.


We use the [Plotly] chart format.

Save your Plotly JSON in your page folder, for example chart.json, and then add the

shortcode where you would like the chart to appear.

You might also find the Plotly JSON Editor useful.


See the Emoji cheat sheet for available emoticons. The following serves as an example, but you should remove the spaces between each emoji name and pair of semicolons:

I : heart : Schoolnotes : smile :

I ❤️ Schoolnotes 😄


This site supports a wide range of icons from Font Awesome and Academicons in addition to emojis.

Here are some examples using the icon shortcode to render icons:

{{< icon name="terminal" pack="fas" >}} Terminal
{{< icon name="python" pack="fab" >}} Python
{{< icon name="r-project" pack="fab" >}} R

renders as

Terminal Python R

Optionally, left and right padding can be added to an icon using the padding_left="3" and padding_right="3" options, respectively.


> This is a blockquote.

This is a blockquote.

Highlight quote

This is a {{< hl >}}highlighted quote{{< /hl >}}.

This is a highlighted quote.

Mention a user

To mention someone, type {{% mention "username" %}} where username corresponds to a user account on the site.


I have more [^1] to say.

[^1]: Footnote example.

I have more 1 to say.

Embed Documents

The following kinds of document may be embedded into a page.

To embed Google Documents (e.g. slide deck), click File > Publish to web > Embed in Google Docs and copy the URL within the displayed src="..." attribute. Then paste the URL in the form:

{{< gdocs src="" >}}


Diagrams can be created in the open source editor. The editor has support for almost any type of diagram, from simple to complex. A diagram can be easily embedded on posts by choosing File > Embed > SVG in the editor and pasting the generated code into your page.

Alternatively, a diagram can be exported as an image from any drawing software, or a document/slide containing a diagram can be embedded.

Twitter tweet

To include a single tweet, pass the tweet’s ID from the tweet’s URL as parameter to the shortcode:

{{< tweet 666616452582129664 >}}

GitHub gist

{{< gist USERNAME GIST-ID  >}}

$\rm \LaTeX$ math

To render inline or block math, wrap your LaTeX math with $...$ or $$...$$, respectively.

Writing Math

  • For writing math, this site uses MathJax
  • If you are unfamiliar with MathJax, use the reference here

Example math block:

$$\gamma_{n} = \frac{
\left | \left (\mathbf x_{n} - \mathbf x_{n-1} \right )^T
\left [\nabla F (\mathbf x_{n}) - \nabla F (\mathbf x_{n-1}) \right ] \right |}
{\left \|\nabla F(\mathbf{x}_{n}) - \nabla F(\mathbf{x}_{n-1}) \right \|^2}$$

renders as

$$\gamma_{n} = \frac{ \left | \left (\mathbf x_{n} - \mathbf x_{n-1} \right )^T \left [\nabla F (\mathbf x_{n}) - \nabla F (\mathbf x_{n-1}) \right ] \right |}{\left |\nabla F(\mathbf{x}_{n}) - \nabla F(\mathbf{x}_{n-1}) \right |^2}$$

Example inline math $\nabla F(\mathbf{x}_{n})$ renders as $\nabla F(\mathbf{x}_{n})$.

Example multi-line math using the \\\\ math linebreak:

$$f(k;p_0^*) = \begin{cases} p_0^* & \text{if }k=1, \\\\
1-p_0^* & \text {if }k=0.\end{cases}$$

renders as

$$f(k;p_0^) = \begin{cases} p_0^ & \text{if }k=1, \\
1-p_0^* & \text {if }k=0.\end{cases}$$

These equations were put here specifically to annoy Pranav Sharma 😝

- Jackson Taylor



| Command           | Description                    |
| ------------------| ------------------------------ |
| `hugo`            | Build your website.            |
| `hugo serve -w`   | View your website.             |


hugoBuild your website.
hugo serve -wView your website.


Schoolnotes supports a Markdown extension for asides, also referred to as callouts.

Asides are a useful feature that add side content such as notes, hints, or warnings to your articles. They are especially handy when writing educational tutorial-style articles or documentation.

You can enable this feature either by using the callout shortcode below. The paragraph will render as an aside with the default note style:

{{% callout note %}}
A Markdown aside is useful for displaying notices, hints, or definitions to your readers.
{{% /callout %}}

This will display the following note block:

A Markdown aside is useful for displaying notices, hints, or definitions to your readers.

Alternatively, a warning can be displayed to the reader using the the warning option:

{{% callout warning %}}
Here's some important information...
{{% /callout %}}

This will display the following warning notice to the reader:

Here’s some important information…

Table of Contents

A table of contents may be particularly useful for long posts or tutorial/documentation type content. Use the `

Table of Contents
` shortcode anywhere you wish within your Markdown content to automatically generate a table of contents.

  1. Footnote example. ↩︎